Autonomous weapons are ideal for tasks such as assassinations, destabilizing nations, subduing populations and selectively killing a particular ethnic group. We therefore believe that a military AI arms race would not be beneficial for humanity. There are many ways in which AI can make battlefields safer for humans, especially civilians, without creating new tools for killing people. Just as most chemists and biologists have no interest in building chemical or biological weapons, most AI researchers have no interest in building AI weapons — and do not want others to tarnish their field by doing so, potentially creating a major public backlash against AI that curtails its future societal benefits.
Indeed, chemists and biologists have broadly supported international agreements that have successfully prohibited chemical and biological weapons, just as most physicists supported the treaties banning space-based nuclear weapons and blinding laser weapons. In summary, we believe that AI has great potential to benefit humanity in many ways, and that the goal of the field should be to do so.
Aries and Sag share a body consciousness—fitness is often a fetish. Sex is straightforward, sponta- neous; no head trips, but never ho-hum. Her unrelenting faith plus his fighting spirit means life is lived like a cru- sade. Still, independence is their mutual mantra. Sexually, Cap is less hesitant with him.
Indeed, she submits to his will. Intellec- tual growth is the outcome. Sex is playful and plentiful. Subconsciously, she seeks to smother him. Still, they settle into an easy give-and- take. Sex is tender, with oedipal overtones. Joes have in common. Sex will be best in the beginning. Concerns arise around a lack of emotional or spiritual depth. Couples counseling is often in their stars. A confident couple—sexually compatible and similarly self- centered. In bed, they keep it simple. With dominant Aries, Gemini expresses his submissive side.
Thriving on drama, life is heightened. They have a need to succeed; mutual support is their mantra. An intensely sexual, and deeply spiritual, connection. Together, they see life as a lark, not a labor. Sex is so satisfying, it becomes a preoccupation. But a bond between them yields soulful self-understanding.
Life together is structured, but the Scales struggles to stay on the straight and narrow. Aries likes a little leather on his Libra. Aries and Scorpio share a profound physical compatibility. Scorpio is often the instigator. Emo- tionally, their dynamic is complex—anger is ever present. In bed, both men will try anything twice. After fascination fades, the focus turns to friendship.
From overtly sexual beginnings, this pair may slowly become abstemious. But when it works, individuality and independence await. Somehow, sex stays comfortably casual. Other couples often enter the mix. Pisces man is unusually shallow in his perception of virile Aries as a mere sexual tool. Aries Woman the original. For Aries woman, the existential journey lies along the path of least resistance. She is the most ascetic female in the zodiac, especially forgoing such feminine trappings as most women would deem essentials. She goes where men go, she does what men do—no double standard, no questions asked.
When it comes to sex, Aries is utterly unsanctimonious, requiring no wooing to coax out her carnal desires. She seeks to satisfy her own potent sex drive where, when, and with whom she damn well pleases. Her ideal man is, likewise, a rugged individualist with scant emotional needs and a healthy libido. No surprise: As anyone who is intimately tion. Aries woman is no Eve to his Adam, however—that persona is represented by Taurus woman, who manifests the opposite energies of subjectivity, passivity, and indeed sub- mission.
As the inheritor of imposing female force, she is not one to be taken lightly. Aries woman cannot simply head-butt her way through life the way the Ram man can;. In taking from this arche- stemming from divine ori- typal example, Aries woman, too, seeks her cool remove from the domination gin. The zodiacal 1st House, ruled by Aries, is one of worldly outlook as well as separateness of being, individuality, selfhood and self-interest, just a few of the many attributes that are particularly relevant to the female of the sign.
The First Quadrant is that of the self and individ- morph into womanhood. As far back as she can remember, it is fellow females, ual awareness. To keep other young women, either. Wholly she perceives to be a male- individual, her presence makes others feel like sheep. She will often be labeled dominated world of double standards and restrictions.
Without even trying, she seems out of reach, something that only inspires men to pursue her all the more vigorously. In contrast, Aries girl is a notoriously cool customer. She establishes herself as a goal which Athena wears on her breastplate. The female ewe for those men attempting to capture her heart. It can be a precarious position was the animal form of the to sustain: Priding herself on being one of a kind, an original, she projects an primordial goddess. And so, Aries wisdom gained via instincts. The cardinal quality signals emerging from the womb divine circle.
And whereas emphasis for the Aries action and initiative. She is an instigator of as a creator, and often one who chooses to remain in an isolated little bubble, the first order, always with birthing her conceptions out into the world. After all, this daughter of Athena an eye on productivity as can arise from blowing the lid off is infamously artsy-craftsy in her professional endeavors, typically preferring to stifled situations.
Few individuals in the zodiac are as clever as she, and writing—cre- ative, philosophical, journalistic, academic, or psychological—often becomes her perfect outlet. Whatever the endeavor, one thing is for sure: Aries woman maintains a healthy distance and objectivity toward her vocation, rarely one to be consumed by, or lost in, pursuits.
Like a child only just learning to their sign and thus enact instead of embody the relate to others, interaction is seemingly always something new to the Aries, the quality-element combination whole of her life being a process of learning how to share, cooperate, and of the sign. Regardless of the she remains cool, calm, and situation, business or pleasure, and despite her signature detached air, at times, collected.
One being the loneliest Except for her trademark tantrums, Aries is otherwise fairly unemotional. Independence sympathetic regard for others. She inherently provided to expe- rience. Aries aligned with her father. Still, Ram girls feel some semblance of compassion, no matter how pale, for their mother. Happy family. Often, Aries comes from a big family with lots of brothers wherein Mother is put-upon, particularly by the males in her life—a private patriarchy of sorts.
She typically so strong a guy as would challenge her need for freedom and her all too pre- lacks compassion to some degree, and she is often cariously forming identity. She has great diffi- culty with romantic commit- Aries woman is an indomitable spirit who seemingly exists to illustrate what a ment and will sometimes quit relationships rather woman is capable of achieving on her own, against societal odds.
She is a pio- than communicate or com- neer, a symbol of strength, self-reliance, and liberation. This fact is especially promise. Nowhere but in this female demographic will you see so few brassieres per capita. If you notice a lanky, natural, decidedly unfussy-looking beauty in the sole company of men, possibly swilling neat drinks and swearing, albeit soft- spokenly, like a sailor, chances are that woman is a Ram. Like sex partners. She is She is one of the boys, and with the wardrobe to match.
Because, much to the vexation of prime archetype is Athena, a war goddess, but one of pru- other women, she can pull that off as well; yet with no more panache than dence, diplomacy, and strat- when she pulls on her favorite s. Her fondness for butch styles makes her all egy. Pallus Athena points to her phallic, spear-toting the more fascinating a creature, creating a stark contrast against her naive, nature. A patroness of crafts, lamby looks. Her lips are a contradiction, ample on bot- tom but slivery on top; sometimes, it even appears as if she has no upper lip at all.
Her forehead is high, lending a wise and noble air. Her neck may also have a clenched, slightly strained look to it. She has dramatic-looking areolae, and nip- a symbol of yonic power. Typically more delicate on top and bigger- matriarchs of Hebraic cul- ture. This quality is accented by ever sapphic Xena, warrior princess. Although she is not a hairy female over- all—barely needing to shave her legs or armpits—she does have a rather dense bush, which may spread wide across her pronounced pelvis, hanging down like a beard at that infamous crossroads between her legs.
The Aries female walks with a springy gait, moving somewhat ganglingly, though never ungracefully. She is highly territorial, her usual domain being with the men. Like her speech, she emits self-image a loud monotone laugh, keeping her jaw clenched against it and her body still selfhood identity and straight. One senses a great vitality in this woman: She radiates health and personality seems capable of meeting tough physical challenges. She is, one might say, ruggedly feminine more than inclinations individuality ambiguously androgynous—a handsome beauty, both admirable and sexually self-expression appealing to men and women alike.
But as a native of idiosyncrasies the 1st House of physicality, she cannot forgo sex—it must be an almost daily natural responses instincts mainstay of her routine. After all, being the catch of the century requires aims and goals remaining available, or at least seeming so. Besides, this willful woman has her own itch to scratch. One dynamic she sometimes falls into, albeit sub- nonconformity consciously, is to have a relationship that actually proves true all her dubious diplomacy strategy notions about the tyranny of men over women. The man she chooses may even be disabled, if not physically, execution then emotionally or psychologically.
Still, even when head over heels in love, the typical Aries is loath skill to marry and become legally beholden.
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Typically, her ideal partner will be a. She wants physical meat Aries rules the head, which, from her mate, not fashion advice or existential musings. Feeling herself more man strategic outlook on life dis- tinguished by prudence and than most men, she desires a guy with whom, in contrast, she can be her most self-protection. Sometimes, though, her judgment signaling flight rather than may truly miss its mark and in her physically focused pursuit of increasingly fight in females of the sign. She has neither the time nor the inclination to send out invitations, hormonal or oth- erwise; such focus on others goes against her nature and feels like an imposi- tion on her no-nonsense character, not to mention a phony waste of time.
Putting out is one thing, being put out is quite another. Sexually, Aries acts on impulse and responds to whatever she experiences as physical attraction. To squelch such impulses seems, to her, a crime against nature.
Few Aries want to work that hard. Scorn is the one sentiment she will not easily abide from a man. And the Aries female expects that same double stan- Diana Ross Julie Christie dard to apply to her relationships.
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She must have, at the very least, what her Robin Wright Penn father enjoyed—usually, she hankers for more. Topping her father is a stock Sarah Jessica Parker Sara Michelle Geller subconscious force—as mentioned, she may enter into the same career as her Cynthia Nixon dad, only to surpass him.
Unconsciously, she seeks to emasculate her father for, Kate Hudson Patricia Arquette what she considers, the foul manner in which he treated her mother. It takes balls, Paulina Porizkova certainly, to do so. Which may not be taking the metaphor far enough—Aries Catherine Keener Jessica Lange female, of all women, has the worst case of penis envy imaginable.
Not one for nuance, Aries generally opts for skipping the preliminaries Ashley Judd and getting to the main event. Still, Aries is not a sensualist by any stretch of the. The mythical symbol for Pallas Athena, incidentally, is basically an Pearl Bailey inverted beaver on a stick. No emotional or cerebral compensation will be necessary on the part of Marguerite Duras Ann Miller either party.
Aries leaves it to the rest of the zodiacal signs to line the pockets Betty Ford of sex therapists and marriage counselors. She plays with herself during sex as well, not wanting to waste St. Marsha Mason Claudia Cardinale She may experiment with anal sex, although it seems to her, quite literally, Ethel Kennedy beside the point. Intercourse is the thing. Never one to just lie there, Astrud Gilberto.
Aries will simultaneously squeeze, pump, and. She is mond atop a cross. Still, as a basically unpsycholog- ical character, one not easily given to fetishes, this proclivity rarely progresses to the whips-and-chains stage. For Aries, all sexual activity should have at least a small dose of shock value to it, especially where there is an opportunity for a bit of exhibitionism on her part.
The Ram wants to cause a stir by being caught out as highly sexed. Often even when in a steady relationship Aries will crave extracur- ricular activities—indeed, no other woman is bound to stray from her primary commitment as much as the Ram. In fact, her long-standing heterosexual relationships can be relatively one- sided, with the man becoming the nurturing, maternal presence. For it must be said that the typical Aries is relatively lacking in maternal instincts, which helps to explain why she often seeks a man who will mother her, that is, when. She will rarely make time for simple shows of affection, something that threatens to become her foremost relationship pit- fall—it also sheds light on why so many Aries live solitary, albeit satisfying lives late into adulthood.
Again, the Ram body hair, stubble, beards large penises, foreskin gal is much more aligned with a stereotypically male perspective in life, one f-f-m threesomes that, in many ways, makes women appear to be the opposite sex. This may sex on-the-side mutual masturbation explain why Aries is easily one of the more bisexual females on the astrologi- laborers, lumberjacks cal block. There is a standing sex, on the floor one-night stands hint of the sadistic in the way she relates to a woman in a bisexual setting, as male rape fantasies she imposes a forcefulness, particularly with someone who is new to girl-on- strangers, casual sex male strippers, escorts girl experiences.
Even the straightest Aries, if there truly male locker rooms sweat, body odor is such an animal, would be curious to feel the rush of screwing another woman to orgasm, and to hear a few pleas for more or less. Just as straight Aries typically hangs with an all-male cast of friends, gay Aries will seek out the company of other women exclusively, for all intents and purposes turning her back on the male world completely. Unlike straight Aries, who, in sleeping with a woman, seeks to express a near-bratty dominance over another female, the gay Aries is looking for the exact opposite experience—she is generally drawn to even more domineering women with whom she can play at being a bit of a sex object herself.
Aries can get very girly, indulging in the sort of feminine trappings that would lamp send straight Ram girls running for the hills. And yet, because she so obliterates herself from the gaze of men, the Aries lesbian feels free to explore, indeed GAY TURN-ONS fetishize, the female experience without its signaling a surrender to male younger women tyranny.
Aries does tend to connect with, struggle, rough-housing even slightly, older lovers, at once butcher and certainly more mothering than fingering mouth music herself. In truth, to the Aries, life is just what happens between sexual experiences. Swimming in the all-girl pool as gay Aries tends to do, increasingly limit- ing her contacts with men in every sector of her life—even in her career, gay Aries will continually gravitate toward or nurture an all-female environ- ment—she will typically befriend other photo-ready females, mainly femmes, with whom to mix and mingle.
When already seriously involved with someone, she maintains a bevy of chic girlfriends, often those like her who have more behind-the-scenes mates, with whom she can con- tinue to check out the ever-changing lesbian social scene. But because she yearns for the unadulterated worship of a blatantly unaffected mate, someone for whom her good looks and glamour are an aphrodisiac not a source of competition as with a similarly inclined lipstick lez , she mostly saves her loving for that emotional rock waiting for her at home.
In such a scenario, she and the third will engage in sensual play designed, in the Aries mind, to provide a visual treat for her partner, who might then get the pleasure of having her way with the visiting newbie. Still, other than for another woman being sexed up from either end via their mutual consent, nothing or no one should ever come between Aries and her lover. A sordid one-night stand could fuse them as best friends. Their pairing is antidotal—an emotional cure for past pain. Sex exorcises ex-lovers. A hot affair that quickly becomes committed. A threat to domestic bliss: her dalliances.
In bed, there are no bells and whistles; ecstasy is automatic. Best-case scenario: This match means positive psy- chological change. When challenged, it disallows personal growth. As a couple, believing themselves an exclusive elite, they have cachet as others buy into the perception. A subversive pair with a complicated sexual dynamic—both hot and heavy in the extreme. Erotic addictions are explored in tandem. This is a supercouple that easily finds professional suc- cess. A messy match— dramatic, chaotic, unclear.
Each inhabits a separate sphere—the overall effect is either meditative or mismatched.
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They agree that androgyny is a Gay supreme state of being. Mutual masturbation might be how it begins. Aries has that glow of good health; Taurus is fetching but unfussy. The Bull offers Aries the protection she herself usually seeks. Sex is earthy and orgiastic. In every aspect, Aries is the leader. In bed, there are no inhibitions. Together, they thrive on social spontaneity and serendipity. Sex, especially with a buzz, is mind-blowing. Leo assumes the role of mentor. Artistic leanings are lovingly pursued, creative passions sparked. Antagonistic from the start, they process tension as pent-up erotic aggression.
Tables turned, the Ram is floored with feelings for the sultry Scorpion sexpot. Aries is the more overt character; Sag keeps her emotions uncharacteristically cached. Superficiality is a pitfall. The infatuation lasts. But taboo is what keeps them tempted. Even when committed, this coupling remains one of the most erotic and exotic lesbian combinations. Raunchiness is de rigueur. Together, life is richer. In bed, Pisces is the consummate femme fatale to the ardent, adoring Aries. Taurus Man the idol. Dude the obscure: Taurus male is purposefully vague.
Seemingly guileless, he disarms those around him by having no apparent agenda to assert—a strong defense is his best offense. Letting experiences unfold rather than forcing things to happen, Taurus remains veritably stress-free in even his loftiest maneuverings, exhibiting what comes to be known as his signature grace and elegance. Hanging back in situ- ations, he is master of all he surveys, and like a wide-eyed kid in a candy store, he maintains an appetite for pleasure and no real barometer for abstinence.
He wants to be wanted, and in the worst way, his seeming insouciance inspiring would- be mates to make all the requisite moves. In a man-to-man bond, Taurus takes a more direct tack, clearly signaling affection, sexual interest, and relationship needs. Still, he will retain enough emotional and psychological dis- tance as to make a lover work at continually keeping him happy. The Taurus is one of two signs ruled by Venus—the other is Libra—the celestial second zodiacal precept of sphere signifying the Feminine Principle in the zodiac.
In keeping with his number of other quiescent-themed concepts. The twist, however, is that sions, people included. In making social plans, he has a compliant, obsequious manner, thusly putting the onus on others to run the show—and take the fall if plans should fail. He hems. He haws. He stumbles. Unable to grasp the obvious in life, he is all subtlety and nuance. He knows the power of provoking interest, and he employs it like a tractor beam, drawing desirable people and situations to him. Taurus believes that strict agendas limit possibilities The glyph of Venus—circle and serendipitous opportunities, which might then exceed such expectations.
Called the mirror other man in the zodiac: He waits. He weighs. He watches. Meanwhile, in his perpet- ual state of bluff, he appears the very image of easeful elegance. He never quite escapes spiritual.
The First Quadrant this dynamic, in fact, whether collecting art, plotting a series of corporate is that of the self and individ- ual awareness. For Taurus, takeovers, or shopping for a lover. Experience for the Taurean guy is all one physical sensation takes pre- big come-to-papa, with little sweat needing to be mopped from his brow.
But cedence over action. Passivity is pretty powerful stuff—the only caveat is that Taurus often gets locked into the roles others cast him in. Thus it is no accident that our expectant Bull is a living archetype of this desire for idolatry. While Aries, via Mars, is concerned with physical action, Taurus, in contrast, is steeped in physical sensation, the unseen aspect of corporeal experience that is instead receptive and reactive to stimuli.
No sur-. The glyph of Venus is often said to be representative of a who must be provoked to attack. Aroma is its means of ensuring sexual propagation of the species—similar to the signals our little Bully sends out. All his life, Taurus retains this same sense of untar- nished innocence, if not blissful ignorance—at the very least, this is what those who seek to seduce him are led to believe.
As well, he is notoriously oblivious to traditional gender roles. Mythology is also lousy with stories about bulls and the women who love them. Zeus, attracted to the nubile Europa, disguises himself as a snow-white bull, offering the girl a ride on his back. Straightaway, he gallops off across the sea with her, establishing Europa as queen of Crete. And bingo: She gives birth The earth element connotes to the horrible half-man, half-bull monster Minotaur, who is kept imprisoned materiality and substance. This myth The fixed quality signifies focus, concentration and a lives on in the hearts and minds of all Taurus men: For when the Bull gives certain magnetism.
Together himself openly as an expression of his own desire, as Zeus approached Europa, the fixed-earth combination particular to Taurus is best the result is ennobling. But when he presents himself for worship, a door is left illustrated by a garden, sym- open to corruption, literally breeding perversion in place of purest desire. Tau- bolizing earthly beauty and delights, sacred space, care- rus does himself a great disservice by not taking a forthright stance in his pro- ful cultivation, property, and fessional life, too. Easy come easy go.
The trap becomes wanting ever more to be wanted: Desire only begets more desire. Sure, Taurus should embrace being his Males in feminine earth, water signs are not aligned laid-back self, like Ferdinand, forever stopping to scratch and sniff the roses. Taurus man seeks to possess material and a host of other esteemed attributes one might seek to garner. Invariably, he has amassed a pack of back onto him. While in the workplace, he makes himself the darling of higher-ups. He is forever subtly attempting to possess the interest of.
It signals the pri- with him. Then again, Taurus gives the impression and Eve fused into a single being prior to the need for of having a lot to dangle. Rarely will he come right out and profess his ambi- first flowering of youth. This period is associated with tions for fear of hearing the dreaded word no. Bulls of both sexes are generally raised in mother-dominated beauty wherein the hor- households where the father, though present, may be passive. As it turns out, monal ragings, soon to ensue, are all but latent. Dad often has a more compliant chickie on the side; his psychological absence is thus a symptom of his attentions being diverted elsewhere.
Such people are his to play with when he pleases, and he expects them, as belongings, to comply. He, on the other hand, remains unbeholden. He is and allusive. With sidelong glances, sly, through weighted eyes, he exudes a obstinately fixed in his ways seductiveness that nonetheless seems unintentional. His slow, meditative move- and can be secretive if not closeted in his obsessions, ments imply a willowy, weighted-down quality—indeed, Taureans are leg- sexual or otherwise.
He is endary for a certain largesse—which speaks to hours of slow, satisfying, sleepy often fetishistic when it comes to feminine trappings sex. Still, Taurus is more than just a pretty face. His quiet expression is not sympto- matic of himbo emptiness, but rather part and parcel of a naturally understated elegance. Taurus is typically leaner, if not taller, than other males in his family; and even when he is small of stature, perfect pro- portions help Taurus project a tall appearance.
He possesses a supple, sinewy physicality that sets him strikingly apart from bulkier adolescent boys. As well, his transition through puberty is slow and subtle. Much to the annoyance of. He produces precisely placed facial hair, often Taurus man personifies clas- heavy on his lip and chin. He has a nonchalant style distinguished by casual but sic flower gods—Hyacinth, Narcissus, Adonis—repre- costly clothes—typically, clean, crisp, and percent natural—as he practically senting nature as male, a lives in jeans, blazers, sweaters, loafers, moccasins, and the like.
Taurus, mostly due to his hair, which, regardless of its consistency, tends to Bulls were an ancient sym- bol of desire, Zeus taking appear unruly and may suffer from errant, aptly named cowlicks. In many cases, taurine form in his infamous his hair thins early in life, and he goes bald before reaching middle age. Still, rape of Europa. Theseus is course. Truth be told,Taurus may seem perpetually off on some weird tangent, his the Taurean hero who still relies on feminine direc- responses somehow not matching or following what has previously been said. His tion—he finds his way out of subjective comments may even stop conversation dead in its tracks, with a prover- the trap by following a thread woven by his lover bial Henh?
He has a high hairline and a bony face, deeply hollowed at the cheekbones. And just as his eyes appear lazy, so, too, is his jaw somewhat slack; and his mouth is often cherry red, his lips full, moist, and blatantly sensual. His infamous Taurean neck—the body part ruled by his sign—tends to live up to its reputation as being ultrastrong and sturdy, never squatty, square, or stocky, as is often asserted by popular astrology.
Rather, it is long and sinewy, like that of a dancer. Indeed, Taurus man. In fact,Taurus man can make The fixed-earth sign of Tau- raiding the fridge look more like practicing tai chi. Taurus man draws upon the passive physical beauty that is unmistakably boyish. More smooth than hairy, any body characterization of the fuzz he does have is typically arranged in tightly contained areas. As in the line pecs, are nonetheless slightly protruding, budding like those of a eleven- story of the golden calf, tau- rine figures were ancient fer- year-old girl.
In the pansy-picking Ferdi- ingly soft, suggesting an emotional sensitivity. And he has proportionately large, sexy hands and feet. Taurus man is often actually myopic, and especially when tipsy or otherwise overly relaxed, he may fail to properly negotiate his environment—just as his voice will boom beyond the polite limits of his surroundings, eliciting the occasional sshhh from his mate.
But again, it must all be chalked up to his natural, boyish exuberance, rather than the slightest social crassness requiring more serious admonitions. Though his antics may invite some quizzical stares from strangers, such behavior only endears Taurus all the more to his ever-widening circle of admirers. And much to his delight, somewhere during his sexual development, he learns that idleness leads to his. Unfortunately, what gain through effort accompanies his compliant attitude is apathy to commitment. He especially personal freedom eschews the company of other overly good-looking guys as might outshine material debt personal protection him, forever fearful of competition and possible defeat.
To his mind there can money earned only be one true Bull per pen: In a sense, Taurus sees his guy friends as steers, money spent amassing money eunuchs of sorts, meant to amuse and calm him until such time as he is singled amour-propre out by some determined female matador. And—toro, toro—it never takes too oneself uniqueness long.
In short, he might rest and relaxation priorities carry on like a seven-to-fourteen-year-old with an all-too-lenient mommy. Nor will he have to exert what guides our actions much energy in the bedroom, letting the more seasoned woman take on the happiness earnings via efforts obligation of driving the sexual action. He may in fact treat her like crap, pushing the limits of her willingness to forgive his rowdier antics, if even subtly abusing the sexual power he wields. Even if his initial sexual experiences are not with an older lady, that younger female, too, will take on a similarly doting, demanding albeit.
As that bliss delight story goes, however, the more gourmet brand of girls out there generally determination demand a good deal of wooing if not outright chasing down—but our pas- methodology acumen sive Bull is simply not a predatory animal. Nine times out of passivity fertility ten, Taurus is seemingly seduced into sex; eight of those nine times, the sup- appetite posed seduction is puppeteered by the Taurean master himself.
And so, he provides beauty idolatry himself the luxury of rarely read: never being dumped or otherwise failing in jealousy relationships. Still, caution repression some women will blatantly get off on the pure idea of seducing him. Mean- intensity while, the single Taurus often has several women, simultaneously, in each cate- exhibition need gory. The Taurean sheikh is nothing, after all, without his worshipful wives and concubines.
In fact, many a. Soughtafter Sheiks Even when in a relationship, Taurus is hard-pressed to pass on any seductress David Beckham Javier Bardem who might throw herself at him. Obvious investment, emotional or oth- Tyrone Power erwise, would run contrary to the signature detachment for which he is wor- Jimmy Stewart Gary Cooper shipped.
The other shoe falling, however, is Fred Astaire Richard Avedon that the most ardent woman for his affections will prevail, and often despite Burt Bacharach how much or little sentiment Taurus may actually feel for her. It seems that primates dispersed from North America where they originally evolved to the Old World during the PETM when climate at high latitudes was briefly suitable for them.
Primates subsequently died out in North America…. A little bit worse and life would have had to start over again from scratch. Joel, The Giant basalt eruptions of Hawaii and the Columbia River flood basalts are both produced by plates over-riding hot spots. The volcanism shows moderate fractionation, for instance oscillatory compositional zoning in primacryst feldspars, and moderate volatile content.
When you fly over Hawaii volcanos, such as I just did with Blue Hawaiian Helicopters, you can smell sulfur gases. But if you want a lot of thermal energy added into ocean or atmosphere go with basalts. We did the Blue Hawaiian Helicopter tour back in Flew over a Kilauea skylight… very cool. Lava fountaining during large flood basalt eruptions is probably strong enough to convect SO2 to the stratosphere. When Mt. It appears that the influence of the sulfates overshadows the influence of CO2. The whole field of paleo-so-called-temperature reconstruction is pseudo-science, which credibility rests entirely on its wide indulgence by people calling themselves scientists.
The remarkable character of the age is that so many scientists have so quickly forgotten how to be scientists. I mean the leadership of the APS and the working scientists that just fall right into line. While you have to control for a lot of factors pH, salinity, overburden, etc. When you have overlap with instrumental data, it can be calibrated and be a fairly robust estimate of past temperatures. But that condition is thoroughly violated and in unknown ways.
It works, when properly controlled… often not easily achieved. If it were possible to control all the extraneous factors, climate scientists would be able to use that thermodynamics to calculate the relevant air temperatures directly. The reason is that all the extraneous factors are not controlled. The direct calculation is impossible. So, they take recourse to statistical re-scaling instead. No statistical re-scaling can accomplish that. Statistics is no substitute for physics. Only physical theory can produce physical meaning.
Consensus climate scientists have faked the temperature result using a specious statistical method decorated with sophisticated mathematics. And then others have accepted it because it looks like science. And I mean that literally: nothing to talk about. All of consensus climate science is like that. I looked at your link, David. The method works only when nothing else changes.
I already pointed that out in my June 3, at pm comment. However, one cannot assume it works to the same intensity at the same place over all time. That supposition is nonsense. Any temperature number produced by direct calculation from the physical theory would be meaningless, because of all the uncontrolled and unknown variables hidden in the data. So they use statistical scaling instead. And produce trend lines of no known physical meaning. When you have a handle on salinity, the volume of water locked up in ice sheets, diagenetic changes, etc. Science starts with observations, then hypotheses, then experiment, then more observations, then conclusions… and ultimately theories.
Not correct, David. Science starts with some theory a hypothesis, more appropriately , even if the theory is incorrect or naive. Frank, you are dead wrong, and Middleton is correct. Science starts with observations. Now, those of us that live in the real world understand that this hypothesis can not be falsified, due to the fact that neither pink, nor blue elephants have been observed in the wild …….
Why collect this, and not that, for example. The preference is determined by the framing context: the operating theory. Make an observation or observations. Ask questions about the observations and gather information. Test the hypothesis and predictions in an experiment that can be reproduced. Analyze the data and draw conclusions; accept or reject the hypothesis or modify the hypothesis if necessary. Reproduce the experiment until there are no discrepancies between observations and theory.
No reproducibility — no science. Not a clever rejoinder, Christopher. Your foundational theory is that there exists something called an elephant. The complete scientific methodology is falsifiable theory and replicable result. You can hypothesize your pink and blue elephants.
One suspects, from the quality of your logic thus far, that you may claim to actually find them in a land no one else can see. It is a lot like teaching language to a child. You point to something and speak the word. No foundational theory required. The association of the word with the observation is all that matters. Your name does not appear in the comment section, so I think you probably are unfamiliar with the analysis. Argument from false analogy. Astrologers start with stars. Does that make astrophysicists into charlatans?
Science requires that hypotheses be monosemous and thus falsifiable. Even Francis Bacon, the originator of the inductivist method, began with the ideas of an external nature, that observations can be separated, categorized, and take unique meanings, and that nature is regular enough to allow generalizations. Clearly, the reason is that you and others are able to make reliable distinctions among objects. The fact that you can notice distinctions among the objects of the world, itself depends upon a theory. That theory is the one emplaced in you by the antecedent million years of post-Cambrian evolution.
The mindless theorizing of mutation hypothesis and the mortal test of natural selection experiment , is what let your ancestors revise their implicit theory by speciation and mindlessly construct a view of the external world in a way that did not result in their deaths. When you observe distinctions in the world, you are just implicitly accepting that theory and operating from it. The fact that you can make these distinctions so automatically does not absolve you from the truth that you are operating from a well-verified theory, nor from the necessity to recognize the reality of that internal theory when it is brought to your conscious attention.
A child can make a distinction between a sweet candy and a sour lime. There are in fact observed instances where birds communicate the danger of a nearby predator with distinctive calls. I already pointed out the theory used by birds and your small child example, Christopher.
Let me repeat it for you: The mindless theorizing of mutation hypothesis and the mortal test of natural selection experiment , is what let your ancestors revise their implicit theory by speciation and mindlessly construct a view of the external world in a way that did not result in their deaths. Go ahead and get hilarious over that, Christopher. You should also take the time to figure out that derision is not an argument. Nor is hilarity a falsification.
Pat Frank has successfully shot himself in his foot. One would think the proper replication of genetic information would more fitting. That processing is the result of the mindless theorizing of mutation and natural selection involved in the evolution of the eye. Mutation is exactly mindless theorizing. When the supposition is wrong, the organism suffers. Pat Frank, you have thus far and consistently missed everything concerning science. It starts with observation. It does not start with a hypothesis, or a theory.
Without observation, you have nothing to base the hypothesis on. It is shocking that a trained chemist does not understand this simple point. Pat Frank you can mindlessly repeat your bogus analogy of mutation and natural selection, however, you have missed the forest for the trees. Prior to any mutation, the molecules of genes must exist.
In science, observation precedes hypothesizing. An observation has no meaning without an interpretative context, Christopher. An interpretative context is a theory. Outside of any context, an observation has no distinctive significance. Science operates on all of them. The question then is, what do hypotheses predict and what experiment can test their prediction.
And you suppose that you know my profession better than I. Good of you to bring up abiogenesis. It discusses a hypothesis for the origin of life, by way of the large-scale parallel and spontaneous exploration of chemical phase-space within the micro-pores of basaltic reefs by pre-biotic molecules. That would be the chemical equivalent of mutation and natural selection, Christopher. Yet another example of mindless theorizing and selection-driven experimentation.
Manfred Eigen wrote a brilliant paper about chemical self-organization of molecules into self-replicating polymers back in Abiogenesis is a process involving the test of molecular structure and reactivity against the restrictions and provisions of the environment. It is exactly the active exploration of a phase-space in a mindless search for survival and propagation.
The formation of molecules from atoms can be described likewise, and even the formation of atoms from subatomic particles. Mutation and natural selection is mindless hypothesis and experimental test, Christopher. David was not correct in his initial argument. Neither were you.
The difference between you and he is illustrative of the distinction between the scientist and the politician. David discontinued the debate. You continue to argue a lost cause. The only lost cause here is you Frank. You are so wound up in chemistry you have neglected the underpinnings of science.
Observations precede hypothesis. After eons of existence, humans have observed that the sun rises in the east. They KNOW that the sun will rise in the east without any hypothesis. Here is the perfect example to show how insane Pat Franks contention that a hypothesis precedes observation. No number of repeated events predicts a next instance. Pat thinks dreams are not based on real world experience. In such a case, we already have theories about everything else.
Our interpretative matrix is then the context provided by those theories. The only way to know that we need some new hypothesis is because we are operating within the interpretative context of the pre-existing theories. Nothing is identical to anything else. Every observation is brand new to some degree. The fact that you can make sense of those observed seagulls is because you have a theory about seagulls, about their existence, and about how they travel.
Your understanding of any given observation, in short, derives from your prior possession of a theory about it. It either fits into your pre-existent body of theory or it does not. Now Mr. Pat Frank has a problem. Since he now contends that Hume has falsified inductive reasoning, then Mr. Pat Frank cannot accept ANY observational experiments in particle physics, due to the 5-sigma constraint mentioned earlier in this thread. If Pat Frank is correct, then even sigma evidence for him would not be good enough. First and foremost Mr.
Frank, Phenomena has been in occasional use as a singular since the early 18th century, as has the plural phenomenas. Apparently the lesson of those truths was lost on you. Your commentary descends into grammar school playground behavior. Pointing and yelling yah! Science is not. No exact analogy between them is possible. Mathematical induction is an inference rule used in formal proofs.
Proofs by mathematical induction are, in fact, examples of deductive reasoning. Mathematical induction is not inductive reasoning, but is rather a form of deduction. It is also clear that you are guilty of the equivocation fallacy. In fact, Free Inquiry magazine does include peer review. The chief editor at that time, Paul Kurtz, was a well-known academic philosopher.
He reviewed our manuscript. Here is his obituary in the NYT. Apart from that, your casual and clearly unthinking dismissal is not a refutation. Physics proceeds by experimental test of deduction from theory. None of physics is inductive reasoning. The statistical tests of reliability operate on physical magnitudes that take their meaning in theory, not from inductive inference. Note the glory of your prose.